There are three main types of sociological research:
1) Aerobatics (reconnaissance);
Aerobatics research is a trial study, which precedes the main one. It is designed to verify the quality of the main study and covers small populations, based on a simplified program. In its course, all the elements of the future study are checked, the difficulties that can be encountered during its conduct are revealed. Often during a pilot study, new hypotheses are formed and operational sociological data are collected. Usually, it is conducted among 50-100 people.
Descriptive research is more complex because in terms of its goals and objectives it involves obtaining a holistic view of the phenomenon being studied. It is carried out in full with the appropriate tools. Descriptive research is conducted when the object of study is a large community of people, differing in various characteristics. You can identify and compare the relationships between them, make a comparison and comparison.
Analytical research is the most profound kind of sociological analysis. Its purpose is to identify the causes underlying the process and determine its specificity. Its preparation takes a long time. It has a complex character.
Depending on whether the subject is studied in static or in dynamics, distinguish between point (one-time) and repeated research. Spot reflects the instantaneous section of the characteristics of the object. Repeated studies are trend, panel, and longitudinal-tyudnymi. Trends are carried out on similar samples with an interval in time within the framework of a single general population. They are divided into the cohort (when studying a certain age group – a cohort) and historical (when the composition of cohorts varies).
Panel examination is the examination of the same people at identical intervals of time. It is important for him to observe uniformity. Information is received about individual changes. The main difficulty is preserving the sample from one study to another. If the moments of the second study are selected taking into account the genesis (development for a long time) of the studied population, then this study is called longitudinal. A specific sociological survey can also be large-scale or local. During the conduct of all studies, so-called social monitoring is carried out – the creation of programs and databases with the help of computers.