Professional Apper Writers
Three Models of Reading
In reading literature, grade, word recognition, working memory, listening comprehension, and text type (i.e., narrative or expository) are assumed to be predictors of reading comprehension. Whereas the single contribution of each variable is thought to promote reading comprehension, the interactions of the variables, as well, may be significant contributors to reading comprehension. Discussion of current models of reading is important because these models contain elements needed to define good reading skills. In addition, models of reading provide an understanding of how the reading acquisition process occurs. The three models of reading discussed in this section include:
(2) “bottom-up,” and
Although the three models address many variables that are essential for reading comprehension, none of the models address all of the variables simultaneously. Additionally, only the interaction models address any kind of interaction of the variables to promote successful reading comprehension. Even interaction models are limited to only interactions of certain variables.
Top-Down Model of Reading
The “top-down” reading acquisition model assumes that the “top” of the information processing system, which constructs the meaning of the passage, control the information flow at all levels. In this model, the reader uses prior knowledge, general world knowledge, and contextual clues to access meaning from, presumably, either narrative or expository type text. The reader engages in a cycle involving the following processes.
Bottom-up Model of Reading
“bottom-up” proponents of reading argue that processing of text is very fast and that information flows through the processing system in stages. The basic idea is that visual information is initially sampled from the printed page and is transformed into meaning through a series of stages.
Interactive Model of Reading
Interactive models of reading assume readers draw upon both “top-down” and “bottom-up” processing before eventually interpreting the text. The strength of interactive models is that it promotes the construction of meaning from print using interactive processes of the variables.